সিটসি ডাঙ্গারেম্বগা: যন্ত্রণার সত্যভাষী স্বর

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Tsitsi Dangarembga

দীপায়ন দত্ত রায়: একুশ শতক মানেই মুক্তচিন্তা আর মুক্তকণ্ঠের আবাদ। অথচ অদ্ভুতভাবে সেই ‘মুক্তমনা’ একুশ শতকেই পৃথিবী-জুড়ে নিরন্তর ঘটছে স্পষ্টভাষীর কণ্ঠরোধের ঘটনা, করা হচ্ছে মুক্তচিন্তার খুন।

অনেক আগের ঘটনা নয়। বলছি ৩১শে জুলাই, ২০২০-এর কথা। সরকার-বিরোধী টুইট করে গ্রেফতার হন জিম্বাবুয়ের বিশিষ্ট সাহিত্যিক ও চিত্র-পরিচালক সিটসি ডাঙ্গারেম্বগা (Tsitsi Dangarembga)। কিন্তু সরকারের সঙ্গে সিটসির সম্পর্কে শৈত্যের আগমন ঘটেছিল আরও কয়েকমাস আগেই যখন করোনা-জনিত খিলকুলুপের (পবিত্র সরকার-কৃত ‘লকডাউন’ শব্দের তরজমা) আবহে জিম্বাবুয়ে (Zimbabwe) সরকারের উদাসীন ভূমিকায় বীতশ্রদ্ধ ডাঙ্গারেম্বগা পথে থামেন অজস্র সাধারণ নাগরিক এবং আরও কিছু বুদ্ধিজীবীদের সাথে। আগাগোড়া সত্যভাষণের জন্য সমাদৃত ডাঙ্গারেম্বগা-র লেখা, সিনেমা, থিয়েটারযাপন এবং সর্বোপরি সমাজচিন্তা তাঁকে তাঁর ‘প্রজন্মের বিবেক’ করে তুলেছে।

সিটসি ডাঙ্গারেম্বগা-র জন্ম ১৯৫৯-এর ৪ঠা ফেব্রুয়ারি দক্ষিণ রোডেশিয়ার (অধুনা জিম্বাবুয়ে) মুটোকোয়। কৃষ্ণাঙ্গ-অধ্যুষিত দারিদ্র্যদীর্ণ রোডেশিয়ায় ডাঙ্গারেম্বগারা ছিল ইউরোপীয় শিক্ষায় শিক্ষিত এলিট। সিটসির মা ছিলেন নেটিভ ‘শোন্না’ উপজাতির প্রথম মহিলা স্নাতক, আর বাবা স্থানীয় বিদ্যালয়ের প্রধান শিক্ষক। উচ্চশিক্ষার তাগিদে কেম্ব্রিজ পাড়ি দেওয়া সিটসি ব্রিটেনে বর্ণবৈষম্যের শিকার হয়ে তিনবছর পর ফিরে আসেন দেশে। মাত্র বছর দুই আগে (১৮ই এপ্রিল, ১৯৮০) স্বাধীন হয়েছে তাঁর দেশ। ইংরেজি-শিক্ষিত গজদন্ত মিনার-বাসী বিলেতফেরত তরুণীর এই প্রথম সুযোগ হলো নিজের দেশের অভুক্ত, বঞ্চিত, নিপীড়িত মানুষের অসহায়তাকে কাছ থেকে দেখার। এতদিন যে শুধু পড়ত আইরিস মার্ডক, ভার্জিনিয়া উলফ, আর্নেস্ট হেমিংওয়ে-কে, সেই মেয়েই এবার থেকে পড়বে কালো চামড়ার লেখক-লেখিকাদের। এইসময়েই সিটসি ডাঙ্গারেম্বগা লিখবেন পরপর কয়েকটি নাটক, যার মধ্যে ‘শি নো লংগার উইপস্’ এবং ‘দ্য থার্ড ওয়ান’ আজও দেশবিদেশে মঞ্চায়িত হয়।

অবশ্য এর অল্পকিছু দিনের মধ্যেই ওঁর মনে হয়, যে-কথা ওঁর বলার আছে, তা বলার জন্য চাই আরও বড় স্পেস, যা ছোটগল্প বা নাটক ওঁকে দিতে পারছিল না। ঠিক করলেন উপন্যাস লিখবেন। লিখলেন-ও। অতঃপর ১৯৮৮-তে লন্ডনের উইমেন্স প্রেস থেকে বেরল ডাঙ্গারেম্বগা-র প্রথম উপন্যাস ‘নার্ভাস কন্ডিশনস্’। ফ্রাঞ্জ ফানো-র ‘দ্য রেচেড্ অব্ দ্য আর্থ’ গ্রন্থের মুখবন্ধে জাঁ-পল সার্ত্র-ব্যবহৃত ‘নার্ভাস কন্ডিশন’ শব্দবন্ধ থেকে ডাঙ্গারেম্বগা নাম রাখেন তাঁর প্রথম উপন্যাসের। একবছর পরে এই বই পুরস্কৃত হবে কমনওয়েল্থ প্রাইজে (আফ্রিকান বিভাগে)। পরবর্তী উপন্যাস ‘দ্য বুক অব্ নট’ প্রকাশিত হবে এর আঠারো বছর পর ২০০৬-এ। ২০১৮ সালে প্রকাশিত হয়েছে ওঁর তৃতীয় উপন্যাস ‘দিস্ মোর্নেবল্ বডি’ (২০২০-র বুকার প্রাইজের শর্টলিস্টে স্থান পাওয়া ছ’টি উপন্যাসের একটি)। এই উপন্যাস তিনটি (একত্রে ‘শোন্না’ ট্রিলজি) অনেকাংশেই লেখিকার আত্মজৈবনিক নির্মাণ। গোটা ট্রিলজি-জুড়ে দেখানো হয় কেন্দ্রীয় চরিত্র টাম্বুর কৈশোর থেকে পরিণত বয়সে পৌঁছানোর অমসৃণ জার্নি।

রোডেশিয়ার অতি পুরুষতান্ত্রিক সমাজের প্রেক্ষাপটে লেখা এই উপন্যাসের গোড়াতেই টাম্বুর ভাই মারা যায়। কিন্তু, শুধুমাত্র মেয়ে হয়ে জন্মানোর দরুন সমাজে এমনকি নিজের পরিবারেও প্রতিক্ষণে অযত্ন আর পক্ষপাতিত্বের শিকার হওয়া টাম্বু স্পষ্ট জানিয়ে দেয়, ভাইয়ের মৃত্যুতে সে দুঃখিত নয়। বরং সে একটু খুশি-ই, এই ভেবে যে অন্তত এখন থেকে ভাই না-থাকায় মা-বাবা তার কথা একটু হলেও ভাববে। টাম্বু জীবনে প্রতিষ্ঠা চায়, কাকার মতো উচ্চশিক্ষিত হতে চায়। পরিবারের সঙ্গে তার মোটেই বনিবনা হয়না, কেননা সে ‘আধুনিক, শিক্ষিত, মুক্তমনা’। ট্রিলজির দ্বিতীয় উপন্যাস ‘দ্য বুক অব্ নট’- এ তরুণী টাম্বু অবশ্য বুঝে গেছে ইংরেজি শিখলেও তাঁর মতো নেটিভ মেয়েদের সেই ‘সেকেন্ড ক্লাস সিটিজেন’ (প্রখ্যাত নাইজেরীয় লেখিকা বুচি এমেচেতার বিতর্কিত উপন্যাসের নাম) বা দ্বিতীয় শ্রেণীর নাগরিক হয়েই থেকে যেতে হবে।

সে বুঝে গেছে, অনেক পড়াশোনা করলেও সে কখনোই ইউরোপীয়দের সমকক্ষ হতে পারবে না। ঘরে-বাইরে বর্ণবৈষম্যের শিকার টাম্বু যেখানেই ভালো কিছু করার চেষ্টা করে, তাকে মুখের ওপর বলে দেওয়া হয় ‘NOT ALLOWED!’ তাকে অভ্যেস করতে হয় সবকিছুতে ‘না’ শোনার, তাই এই উপন্যাসের নাম ‘দ্য বুক অব্ নট’। ‘শোন্না’ ট্রিলজির শেষ উপন্যাস ‘দিস্ মোর্নেবল্ বডি’-তে টাম্বু মধ্যতিরিশের এক অবিবাহিতা, কর্মরতা নারী। এখন তার ঠিকানা বাড়ি থেকে বেশ খানিকটা দূরের একটি মেয়েদের হস্টেল। নিজের জীবন নিয়ে সে বড়ই বিরক্ত, একাকিত্বে রিক্ত। তবু পরিবারের সঙ্গে ভালো সম্পর্ক রাখেনি বলে সে নিজের বাড়িও ফিরে যেতে পারবেনা।

সিটসি ডাঙ্গারেম্বগা-র লেখা শুধু নিগ্রোদের কষ্ট, দুর্দশার কথাই বলে না, বরং যুগের পর যুগ ধরে চলে আসা বর্ণবৈষম্যের প্রভাব কতটা সুদূরপ্রসারী এবং বহুমাত্রিক, তা-ও বুঝিয়ে দেয়। ‘দিস্ মোর্নেবল্ বডি’-র উপান্তে পৌঁছে যখন মনে হবে আমরা আরও একটা তথাকথিত ‘হ্যাপি এন্ডিং’ পেতে চলেছি, তখনই ঘটবে এক অনভিপ্রেত ঘটনা। সদ্য ইকো-ট্যুরিজম এজেন্সিতে কাজ পাওয়া ‘গাইড’ টাম্বুর পাশে দাঁড়িয়ে একজন সাদা চামড়ার ইউরোপীয় পর্যটক ছবি তুলতে গেলে, টাম্বুর শ্বেতাঙ্গ-বিদ্বেষী মা ওই পর্যটকের জামা টেনে ছিঁড়ে দেয়।

অকুতোভয় ডাঙ্গারেম্বগা-ই জিম্বাবুয়ের প্রথম কৃষ্ণাঙ্গ মহিলা যিনি ইংরেজিতে উপন্যাস লিখেছেন। তবে, তিনি তো শুধু একজন মানবিক লেখিকা ও নাট্যকার নন, একজন মেধাবী চিত্র-পরিচালকও। পরিচালনা করেছেন ‘দ্য পাপেটিয়ার’, ‘আম্ভুরা’, এভরিওয়ান্স চাইল্ড’, ‘স্পেল মাই নেম’-এর মতো অসামান্য কিছু সিনেমার। এ-দিক থেকেও ডাঙ্গারেম্বগা-র নাম ইতিহাসে বরণীয়, কারণ তিনিই জিম্বাবুয়ের প্রথম মহিলা কৃষ্ণাঙ্গ চিত্র-পরিচালক। মৃত্যুতমসায় আচ্ছন্ন ক্যানভাসে মারণব্যাধি-জনিত বিয়োগযন্ত্রণার যে অরুন্তুদ তন্তুজাল ‘এভরিওয়ান্স চাইল্ড’ সিনেমায় সিটসি বুনেছেন, তা অবস্মরণীয়। সিনেমাটির একটি গুরুত্বপূর্ণ দৃশ্যে দেখা যাবে, সদ্য অনাথ হওয়া ইটায়ি আর টামারি দেখতে-দেখতে মিলিয়ে যাচ্ছে অন্ধকারে। চিরদিনের মতো মুছে যাচ্ছে ওদের আলোয় ফেরার রাস্তা।

আশার কথা, সিটসি ডাঙ্গারেম্বগা-কে সদ্য পুরস্কৃত করেছে বিশ্বখ্যাত PEN সংস্থাটি। হ্যারল্ড পিন্টারের নামাঙ্কিত এই পুরস্কার সেইসব নির্ভীক ও কৃতী সাহিত্যিক, সাংবাদিক এবং শিল্পীকে দেওয়া হয়, যাঁরা রাষ্ট্রযন্ত্রের নিগ্রহের শিকার হয়েও জারি রাখেন তাঁদের শিল্পচর্চা এবং প্রতিবাদী কর্মকাণ্ড। ২০০৯ সাল থেকে শুরু হওয়া এই পুরস্কার প্রথমবার পেয়েছিলেন টনি মরিসন। পরবর্তীতে সলমন রুশদি, মার্গারেট অ্যাটউড-ও পেয়েছেন এই অনন্য সম্মান। ডাঙ্গারেম্বগা-র নাম এই তালিকায় একটি সময়োচিত সংযোজন।

২০২০-র বুকার প্রাইজের চূড়ান্ত তালিকায় যখন সিটসি ডাঙ্গারেম্বগা-র নাম ঘোষণা হচ্ছে, তখন লেখিকাকে হাজিরা দিতে হচ্ছে হারারে-র কোর্টে। তবু ভেঙে পড়েননি তিনি। গ্রেফতার হওয়ার পর প্যারোলে মুক্তি পেয়ে দেশ ছাড়ার কথাও ভাবেননি। ডাঙ্গারেম্বগা ব্রিটেনে থাকাকালীন পড়েছিলেন স্বদেশীয় ডাম্বুদজো মারেচেরার লেখা ‘দ্য হাউস অব্ হাঙ্গার’। সেই বইয়ের প্রথম বাক্যই ছিল— ‘I got my things and left’। কিন্তু উপন্যাসের নায়কের মতো তল্পিতল্পা গুটিয়ে দেশ ছেড়ে পালাতে রাজি নন ডাঙ্গারেম্বগা। তিনি চান সাহসে উজ্জ্বল হয়ে নিজের পোড়া দেশে থেকে অন্যায়ের প্রতিবাদ করতে, দুর্নীতির মুখের ওপর থুতুর মতো সত্যকে ছিটিয়ে দিতে, আর আপসহীন লড়ে যেতে, কেননা লড়াই এখনও অনেক বাকি।

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